Mediterr J Rheumatol 2021;32(2):96-103
Biologic Therapies and Autoimmune Phenomena
Authors Information

Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece

Drosos AA , Pelechas E , Kaltsonoudis E , Markatseli TE , Voulgari PV 


The use of biologic medications has represented a great advancement in the treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Despite their excellent efficacy, during the last years, a growing number of reports of autoimmune phenomena and paradoxical inflammation has emerged. These phenomena may range from the discovery of an isolated autoantibody to full-blown autoimmune diseases, organ-specific and systemic. This review has been carried out in order to underline the multitude of the potential adverse manifestations from the use of biologic medications. Thus, early recognition of specific types of autoimmune phenomena is an imperative for the physicians allowing them to have an accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Article Submitted: 20 Dec 2020; Article Accepted: 20 Apr 2021; Available Online: 30 Jun 2021 


 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY). 

 ©Drosos AA, Pelechas E, Kaltsonoudis E, Markatseli TE, Voulgari PV.