Mediterr J Rheumatol 2021;32(4):369-72
Sydenham’s Chorea as the First Manifestation of Rheumatic Fever in Two Boys
Authors Information

1. Institute for Health Sciences from Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

2. Laboratory of the Mosaic of Autoimmunity, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia

JF Carvalho, LP Churilov


Sydenham’s chorea is a cardinal manifestation of rheumatic fever, but it is more common in girls. We describe two boys who developed Sydenham’s chorea and were successfully treated. Case 1: A5-year-old boy started an involuntary movement of his hand, progressing to all the upper limbs, bilaterally. The family observed a deterioration in his handwriting skills. Heart auscultation did not reveal any murmur, and the oropharynx examination was normal. A brain magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, and echocardiography were interpreted as normal. He was treated with valproate 2.5mL twice a day. Prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin was started using 600,000IU every 21 days. After four months, the patient was asymptomatic, and valproate was tapered off.

Case 2: A 7-year-old boy with a long history of frequent otitis and pharyngitis started involuntary movements of his face and on his upper limbs, and also, his mother noted tics on his face. A brain magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography were normal. He was treated with haloperidol 10 drops (1mg) twice a day, and prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin was started using 600,000IU every 21 days. After three months, the patient was asymptomatic, all chorea manifestations resolved, haloperidol was then tapered off.In conclusion, this study illustrates two uncommon cases of boys who developed Sydenham's chorea and had a good outcome.

Article Submitted: 15 Oct 2020; Article Accepted: 20 Nov 2020; Available Online: 27 Dec 2021


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY). 

©de Carvalho JF, Churilov LP.