Mediterr J Rheumatol 2019;30(2):114-22
Genetic Association Between Growth Differentiation Factor 5 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Primary Knee Osteoarthritis in a Group of Egyptian Patients: A Pilot Study
Authors Information

1Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, 2Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

3Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Ministry of Health, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt

Aim: This study aimedto determine the genetic association between Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) gene (rs143383 T/C) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a group of Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods: The study included 47 patients with primary knee OA and 40 apparently healthy control subjects. The dis­ease was assessed using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Radiological assessment was done by Kellgren-Laurence (K/L) grading system. The genetic association of the SNP with primary knee OA was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism - polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR).Results: The mean total WOMAC index was significantly higher in patients with TT genotype as compared to patients with CC and CT genotypes (P<0.001). Similarly, the HAQ score was significantly higher among patients with TT genotype when compared to patients with CT and CC genotypes (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant association between different GDF5 genotypes and K/L radiological grading of knee OA among the studied patients (P=0.029). No statistically significant association was detected on comparing the frequency distribution of GDF5 alleles and genotypes frequencies of the SNP in patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: There is a possible genetic association between GDF5 (rs143383) SNP and severity of primary knee OA, which might facilitate the detection of patients with high risk for disease progression.  The present study did not detect an association between the SNP and development of primary knee OA.