Mediterr J Rheumatol 2017;28(4):192-200
Translation and validation of the Fatigue Severity Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire into the Maltese Language, in a cohort of Maltese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients
Authors Information

1: Rheumatology Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta

2: Statistics and Operations Research, University of Malta, Msida, Malta

PURPOSE: The assessment of fatigue, sleep quality and functional disability requires the use of validated instruments such as the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) respectively. The aim of this study was to translate and validate these instruments into the Maltese Language. METHOD: Forward translation from the original English version into Maltese was carried out by two translators. The two versions were compiled to produce a preliminary initial Maltese translation. This was translated back into English by two other translators. This led to the development of the pre-final version of the Maltese translation, which was pilot-tested in 20 bilingual patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. RESULTS: Psychometric testing revealed good reliability of the Maltese translation of the three questionnaires. Cronbach’s alpha of the Maltese versions of the FSS, PSQI and mHAQ were 0.877, 0.859 and 0.897 respectively, showing good internal consistency. Validity of the Maltese version of the FSS was shown, since it had a significant positive correlation with visual analogue scale for fatigue (r=0.809, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The Maltese translations were thus finalised, and could be used for clinical assessment or research purposes.