Mediterr J Rheumatol 2022;33(3):291-304
Stop Searching under the Streetlight! A Primer and Practical Guide to the Diagnosis of Joint Pain and Inflammation
Authors Information
  1. Maccabi Healthcare Services: Tel Aviv, Israel
  2. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, affiliated with the Tel Aviv University Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel
  3. Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Dana Children's Hospital, affiliated with the Tel Aviv University Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel

E Krasin

  1. Keener JD, Patterson BM, Orvets N, Chamberlain AM. Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears: Refining Surgical Indications Based on Natural History Data. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019;27:156-65.
  2. Rugg CM, Gallo RA, Craig EV, Feeley BT. The pathogenesis and management of cuff tear arthropathy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:2271-83.
  3. Millett PJ, Fritz EM, Frangiamore SJ, Mannava S. Arthroscopic Management of Glenohumeral Arthritis:A Joint Preservation Approach. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018;26:745-52.
  4. Mall NA, Foley E, Chalmers PN, Cole BJ, Romeo AA, Bach BR Jr. Degenerative joint disease of the acromioclavicular joint: a review. Am J Sports Med 2013;41:2684-92.
  5. Abrams GD, Safran MR. Diagnosis and management of superior labrum anterior posterior lesions in overhead athletes. Br J Sports Med 2010;44:311-8.
  6. Best MJ, Tanaka MJ. Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder: Treatment Options and Considerations. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2018;26:113-9.
  7. Matzkin E, Suslavich K, Wes D. Swimmer’s Shoulder: Painful Shoulder in the Competitive Swimmer. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2016;24:527-36.
  8. Funk L, Levy O, Even T, Copeland SA. Subacromial plica as a cause of impingement in the shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2006;15:697-700.
  9. Bozzo A, Oitment C, Thornley P, Yan J, Habib A, Hoppe DJ, et al. Humeral Avulsion of the Glenohumeral Ligament: Indications for Surgical Treatment and Outcomes—A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. Epub ahead of print 14 August 2017. DOI:10.1177/2325967117723329.
  10. Harrison AK, Flatow EL. Subacromial impingement syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2011;19:701-8.
  11. Merolla G, Singh S, Paladini P, Porcellini G. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: state of the art in diagnosis and treatment. J Orthop Traumatol Off J Ital Soc Orthop Traumatol 2016;17:7-14.
  12. Redler LH, Dennis ER. Treatment of Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019;27:e544-e554.
  13. Cuff DJ, Santoni BG. Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Versus Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for Post-Capsulorrhaphy Arthropathy. Orthopedics 2018;41:275-80.
  14. Gigante A, Bottegoni C, Barbadoro P. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain. Joints 2016;4:31-8.
  15. Hurst SA, Gregory TM, Reilly P. Os acromiale: a review of its incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical management. EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:525-32.
  16. Bhatia DN, de Beer JF, van Rooyen KS, Lam F, du Toit DF. The ‘bench-presser’s shoulder’: an overuse insertional tendinopathy of the pectoralis minor muscle. Br J Sports Med 2007;41:e11.
  17. Nadarajah CV, Weichert I. Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome. Case Rep Rheumatol;2014. Epub ahead of print 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/458708.
  18. Ross JJ. Septic Arthritis of Native Joints. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2017;31:203-18.
  19. Bariteau JT, Waryasz GR, McDonnell M, Fischer SA, Hayda RA, Born CT. Fungal Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2014;22:390-401.
  20. Umer M, Hasan OHA, Khan D, Uddin N, Noordin S. Systematic approach to musculoskeletal benign tumors. Int J Surg Oncol 2017;2:e46.
  21. Singla A, Geller DS. Musculoskeletal Tumors. Pediatr Clin North Am 2020;67:227-45.
  22. Roodman GD. Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1655-64.
  23. Lokiec F, Wientroub S. Simple bone cyst: etiology, classification, pathology, and treatment modalities. J Pediatr Orthop Part B 1998;7:262-73.
  24. Alpert SW, Koval KJ, Zuckerman JD. Neuropathic Arthropathy: Review of Current Knowledge. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1996;4:100-08.
  25. Cummins CA, Messer TM, Nuber GW. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000;82:415-24.
  26. Flynn LS, Wright TW, King JJ. Quadrilateral space syndrome: a review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:950-6.
  27. Tjoumakaris FP, Anakwenze OA, Kancherla V, Pulos N. Neuralgic amyotrophy (Parsonage-Turner syndrome). J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2012;20:443-9.
  28. Osbahr DC, Kim HJ, Dugas JR. Little league shoulder. Curr Opin Pediatr 2010;22:35-40.
  29. Large TM, Adams MR, Loeffler BJ, Gardner MJ. Posttraumatic Avascular Necrosis After Proximal Femur, Proximal Humerus, Talar Neck, and Scaphoid Fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019;27:794-805.
  30. Edwin J, Ahmed S, Verma S, Tytherleigh-Strong G, Karuppaiah K, Sinha J. Swellings of the sternoclavicular joint: review of traumatic and non-traumatic pathologies. EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:471-84.
  31. Donaldson O, Vannet N, Gosens T, Kulkarni R. Tendinopathies Around the Elbow Part 2: Medial Elbow, Distal Biceps and Triceps Tendinopathies. Shoulder Elb 2014;6:47-56.
  32. Aaron DL, Patel A, Kayiaros S, Calfee R. Four common types of bursitis: diagnosis and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2011;19:359-67.
  33. Sachar K, Mih AD. Congenital radial head dislocations. Hand Clin 1998;14:39-47.
  34. Lee HI, Koh KH, Kim J-P, Jaegal M, Kim Y, Park MJ Prominent synovial plicae in radiocapitellar joints as a potential cause of lateral elbow pain:clinico-radiologic correlation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:1349-56.
  35. Ellington MD, Edmonds EW. Pediatric Elbow and Wrist Pathology Related to Sports Participation. Orthop Clin North Am 2016;47:743-8.
  36. Naam NH, Nemani S. Radial tunnel syndrome. Orthop Clin North Am 2012;43:529-36.
  37. Le TB, Mont MA, Jones LC, LaPorte DM, Hungerford DS. Atraumatic osteonecrosis of the adult elbow. Clin Orthop 2000;141-5.
  38. Phillips SG. An Evidence-Based Review of Overuse Wrist Injuries in Athletes. Orthop Clin North Am 2020;51:499-509.
  39. Glyn-Jones S, Palmer AJR, Agricola R, Price AJ, Vincent TL, Weinans H,et al. Osteoarthritis. Lancet Lond Engl 2015;386:376-87.
  40. Rosenthal AK, Ryan LM. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease. N Engl J Med 2016;374:2575-84.
  41. Crownover BK, Covey CJ. Hereditary hemochromatosis. Am Fam Physician 2013;87:183-90.
  42. Krasin E, Goldwirth M, Gold A, Goodwin DR. Review of the current methods in the diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Postgrad Med J 2001;77:235-7.
  43. Lichtman DM, Pientka WF, Bain GI. Kienböck Disease: Moving Forward. J Hand Surg 2016;41:630-8.
  44. Lauder AJ, Trumble TE. Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the scaphoid:Preiser’s disease. Hand Clin 2006;22:475-84;abstract vi.
  45. Peters SJ, Degreef I, De Smet L. Avascular necrosis of the capitate:report of six cases and review of the literature. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2015;40:520-25.
  46. Lee DJ, Elfar JC. Carpal ligament injuries, pathomechanics, and classification. Hand Clin 2015;31:389-98.
  47. Acott TR, Greenberg JA. Ulnar Abutment Syndrome in the Athlete. Orthop Clin North Am 2020;51:227-33.
  48. Kovachevich R, Elhassan BT. Arthroscopic and Open Repair of the TFCC. Hand Clin 2010;26:485-94.
  49. Mauck B, Kelly D, Sheffer B, Calandruccio JH. Gymnast’s Wrist (Distal Radial Physeal Stress Syndrome). Orthop Clin North Am 2020;51:493-7.
  50. Kozin SH, Zlotolow DA. Madelung Deformity. J Hand Surg 2015;40:2090-8.
  51. De Smet L. Ulnar variance: facts and fiction review article. Acta Orthop Belg 1994;60:1-9.
  52. Green DP. Mauclaire’s disease. J Hand Surg 2011;36:757.
  53. Kotevoglu-Senerdem N, Toygar B, Toygar B. Thiemann disease. J Clin Rheumatol Pract Rep Rheum Musculoskelet Dis 2003;9:359-361.
  54. Egger AC, Frangiamore S, Rosneck J. Femoroacetabular Impingement:A Review. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2016;24:e53-e58.
  55. Woyski D, Mather RC. Surgical Treatment of Labral Tears: Debridement, Repair, Reconstruction. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2019;12:291-9.
  56. Weaver CJ, Major NM, Garrett WE, Urbaniak JE. Femoral Head Osteochondral Lesions in Painful Hips of Athletes. Am J Roentgenol 2002;178:973-7.
  57. Macke C, Krettek C, Brand S. [Tendinopathies of the hip :Treatment recommendations according to evidence-based medicine]. Unfallchirurg 2017;120:192-8.
  58. Klontzas ME, Vassalou EE, Zibis AH, Karantanas AH. Hydroxyapatite deposition disease around the hip:outcomes of CT-guided treatment. Diagn Interv Radiol Ank Turk 2016;22:466-70.
  59. Lungu E, Michaud J, Bureau NJ. US Assessment of Sports-related Hip Injuries. Radiogr Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc 2018;38:867-89.
  60. Ross JR, Stone RM, Larson CM. Core Muscle Injury/Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia, and Femoroacetabular Impingement. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2015;23:213-20.
  61. Atlihan D, Jones DC, Guanche CA. Arthroscopic Treatment of a Symptomatic Hip Plica. Clin Orthop 2003;411:174-77.
  62. Korompilias AV, Karantanas AH, Lykissas MG, Beris AE. Transient Osteoporosis. JAAOS - J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2008;16:480-9.
  63. Patel DS, Roth M, Kapil N. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Am Fam Physician 2011;83:39-46.
  64. Golden MP, Vikram HR. Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Overview. Am Fam Physician 2005;72:1761-8.
  65. Lidar M, Giat E. An Up-to-date Approach to a Patient with a Suspected Autoinflammatory Disease. Rambam Maimonides Med J;8. Epub ahead of print 30 January 2017. DOI:10.5041/RMMJ.10277.
  66. Weinstein SL. Natural history and treatment outcomes of childhood hip disorders. Clin Orthop 1997;227-42.
  67. Tuite MJ. Sacroiliac joint imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2008;12:72-82.
  68. Thawrani DP, Agabegi SS, Asghar F. Diagnosing Sacroiliac Joint Pain. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019;27:85-93.
  69. Yousif S, Wood M. Minimally invasive resection of lumbosacral pseudojoint resulting in complete resolution of a lower back pain - A case report and review of Bertolotti syndrome. J Clin Neurosci 2018;51:67-8.
  70. Longhino V, Bonora C, Sansone V. The management of sacral stress fractures: current concepts. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2011;8:19-23.
  71. Vaiopoulos G, Sfikakis PP, Velikas E, Kittas C, Kaklamanis P. Tuberculosis of the sacroiliac joint. Eur Spine J 1997;6:330-1.
  72. Sagiv M, Slobodin G. Metastatic Sacroiliitis. Isr Med Assoc J IMAJ 2019;21:700.
  73. Altan L, Kurtoğlu Z, Yalçınkaya U, Aydinli U, Ertürk E. Brown tumor of the sacral spine in a patient with low-back pain. Rheumatol Int 2007;28:77-81.
  74. Aharoni D, Mekhmandarov S, Itzchaki M, Hiller N, Elstein D. Avascular necrosis of the sacroiliac joint in a patient with Gaucher disease. Isr Med Assoc J IMAJ 2001;3:767-8.
  75. Kruckeberg BM, Cinque ME, Moatshe G, Marchetti D, DePhillipo NN, Chahla J, et al. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint Instability and Treatment Approaches: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Arthroscopy 2017;33:1743-51.
  76. Magit D, Wolff A, Sutton K, Medvecky MJ. Arthrofibrosis of the knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2007;15:682-94.
  77. Houghton KM. Review for the generalist: evaluation of anterior knee pain. Pediatr Rheumatol 2007;5:8.
  78. Alaia MJ, Cohn RM, Strauss EJ. Patellar instability. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 2013 2014;72:6-17.
  79. Bauer KL, Polousky JD. Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Knee, Elbow and Ankle. Clin Sports Med 2017;36:469-87.
  80. Mont MA, Marker DR, Zywiel MG, et al. Osteonecrosis of the knee and related conditions. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2011;19:482-94.
  81. Schindler OS. ‘The Sneaky Plica’ revisited: morphology, pathophysiology and treatment of synovial plicae of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2014;22:247-62.
  82. Gholve PA, Scher DM, Khakharia S, Widmann RF, Green DW. Osgood Schlatter syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr 2007;19:44-50.
  83. Duri ZAA, Patel DV, Aichroth PM. The immature athlete. Clin Sports Med 2002;21:461-482, ix.
  84. Morais SA, du Preez HE, Akhtar MR, Cross S, Isenberg DA. Musculoskeletal complications of haematological disease. Rheumatology 2016;55:968-81.
  85. Stephan SR, Shallop B, Lackman R, Kim TWB, Mulcahey MK. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis: A Comprehensive Review and Proposed Treatment Algorithm. JBJS Rev;4. Epub ahead of print 19 2016. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.RVW.15.00086.
  86. Evenski AJ, Stensby JD, Rosas S, Emory CL. Diagnostic Imaging and Management of Common Intra-articular and Peri-articular Soft Tissue Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Knee. J Knee Surg 2019;32:322-30.
  87. Andrés M, Pascual E. Anakinra for a refractory case of intermittent hydrarthrosis with a TRAPS-related gene mutation. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:155.
  88. Sanamandra SK, Ong KO. Lipoma arborescens. Singapore Med J 2014;55:5-10;quiz 11.
  89. Dowd GSE, Hussein R, Khanduja V, Ordman AJ. Complex regional pain syndrome with special emphasis on the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2007;89-B:285-90.
  90. Choudhary S, McNally E. Review of common and unusual causes of lateral ankle pain. Skeletal Radiol 2011;40:1399-413.
  91. Nault M-L, Kocher MS, Micheli LJ. Os trigonum syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2014;22:545-53.
  92. Carlsson Å. Hereditary hemochromatosis: a neglected diagnosis in orthopedics:A series of 7 patients with ankle arthritis, and a review of the literature. Acta Orthop 2009;80:371-4.
  93. Murai NO, Teniola O, Wang W-L, Amini B. Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors About the Foot and Ankle. Radiol Clin North Am 2018;56:917-34.
  94. Schwab SA. Epiphyseal injuries in the growing athlete. CMAJ 1977;117:626-30.
  95. Practitioners TRAC of G. RACGP - The challenge of managing mid-foot pain, https://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2015/march/the-challenge-of-managing-mid-foot-pain/ (accessed 28 October 2020).
  96. Forrester RA, Eyre-Brook AI, Mannan K. Iselin’s Disease: A Systematic Review. J Foot Ankle Surg Off Publ Am Coll Foot Ankle Surg 2017;56:1065-9.
  97. Samim M, Moukaddam HA, Smitaman E. Imaging of Mueller-Weiss Syndrome:A Review of Clinical Presentations and Imaging Spectrum. Am J Roentgenol 2016;207:W8-W18.
  98. Hulstaert T, Shahabpour M, Provyn S, Lenchik L, Simons P, Vanheste R, et al. Forefoot Pain in the Lesser Toes: Anatomical Considerations and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings. Can Assoc Radiol J 2019;70:408-15.
  99. Suresh E. Diagnosis and management of gout: a rational approach. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:572-9.
  100. Kataria RK, Brent LH. Spondyloarthropathies. Am Fam Physician 2004;69:2853-60.
  101. Coates LC, Helliwell PS. Psoriatic arthritis: state of the art review. Clin Med 2017;17:65-70.
  102. Wasserman A. Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Am Fam Physician 2011;84:1245-52.
  103. Karthikeyan G, Guilherme L. Acute rheumatic fever. Lancet Lond Engl 2018;392:161-74.
  104. Prakken B, Albani S, Martini A. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Lancet Lond Engl 2011;377:2138-49.
  105. Tsokos GC. Systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2110-21.
  106. Denton CP, Khanna D. Systemic sclerosis. Lancet Lond Engl 2017;390:1685-1699.
  107. Schmidt J. Current Classification and Management of Inflammatory Myopathies. J Neuromuscul Dis;5:109-29.
  108. Mariette X, Criswell LA. Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2018;378:931-9.
  109. Karmacharya P, Donato AA, Aryal MR, Ghimire S, Pathak R, Shah K, et al. RS3PE revisited:a systematic review and meta-analysis of 331 cases. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2016;34:404-15.
  110. Sakane T, Takeno M, Suzuki N, Inaba G. Behçet’s disease. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1284-91.
  111. Nguyen MT, Borchers A, Selmi C, Naguwa SM, Cheema G, Gershwin ME. The SAPHO Syndrome. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2012;42:254-65.
  112. Talsania M, Scofield RH. Menopause and rheumatic disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2017;43:287-302.
  113. Léger D. Scurvy. Can Fam Physician 2008;54:1403-6.
  114. Gil JA, Wawrzynski J, Waryasz GR. Orthopedic Manifestations of Ochronosis:Pathophysiology, Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management. Am J Med 2016;129:536.e1-6.
  115. Pascarella G, Strumia A, Piliego C, Bruno F, Del Buono R, Costa F, et al. COVID-19 diagnosis and management: a comprehensive review. J Intern Med 2020 Aug;288(2):192-206. DOI:10.1111/joim.13091.
  116. Marks M, Marks JL. Viral arthritis. Clin Med 2016;16:129-34.
  117. Park K-H, Lee MS, Hong IK, Sung JY, Choi SH, Park SO, et al. Bone involvement in secondary syphilis:a case report and systematic review of the literature. Sex Transm Dis 2014;41:532-7.
  118. Pelosof LC, Gerber DE. Paraneoplastic Syndromes:An Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:838-54.
  119. Mucci JM, Rozenfeld P. Pathogenesis of Bone Alterations in Gaucher Disease:The Role of Immune System. J Immunol Res;2015. Epub ahead of print 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/192761.
  120. Child AH. Non-cardiac manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2017;6:599-609.
  121. Cundy T. Paget’s disease of bone. Metabolism 2018;80:5-14.
  122. Zylberberg HM, Lebwohl B, Green PHR. Celiac Disease—Musculoskeletal Manifestations and Mechanisms in Children to Adults. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018;16:754-62.
  123. Bechman K, Christidis D, Walsh S, Birring SS, Galloway J. A review of the musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis. Rheumatology 2018;57:777-83.
  124. Musculoskeletal Manifestations of Amyloidosis: A Focused Review | JSOA Online, https://www.jsoaonline.com/archive/2018/musculoskeletal-manifestations-of-amyloidosis-a-focused-review/ (accessed 16 June 2020).
  125. Conforti A, Chiamulera C, Moretti U, Colcera S, Fumagalli G, Leone R. Musculoskeletal Adverse Drug Reactions: A Review of Literature and Data from ADR Spontaneous Reporting Databases. Curr Drug Saf 2007;2:47-63.